Criminal justice systems are composed of law enforcement agencies, court systems, and correctional institutions. These organizations operate together using defined processes and protocols to regulate crime and impose penalties on those who break laws. A one-size fits all system does not exist, as laws and norms are influenced by country, culture, history, and religion. New technology has created both challenges and opportunities for criminal justice systems, especially since a variety of online activities that constitute crime and new means of analyzing evidence are in place. Virtually every new technology is likely to be used against the public at some time in the future.

As law enforcement agencies develop new ways of identifying criminals and criminal behavior, where should the line be drawn between public safety and civil liberties? How will automated systems, robocops, and crime-predicting software shape the monitoring or detainment of convicted individuals? What might future courtrooms look like? Under what circumstances or guidelines should legal software programs and predictive coding be used as part of a criminal justice system?