Neurotechnology is a growing science that helps people understand the brain as well as aspects of consciousness, thought, and high-functioning activities. Since the development of brain imaging, scientists have made significant progress in the field. Neurotechnology includes products and procedures that improve and repair brain function. Presently, we can create images of almost all aspects of the brain, and to some degree, control its functions. Brain imaging, stimulation, measurement, and cell therapy all show promise, as do developments in brain-computer interfaces. Neurotechnology can help treat depression, insomnia, Parkinson’s disease, and many other conditions, as well as improving the quality of life for those with disabilities or injuries. However, its side effects are not well understood, and the implications related to its use have not been fully explored. What potential challenges could scientists, policymakers, and the public face as this technology continues to develop? How can neurotechnology be used to heal and enhance human and animal brains? What are the potential benefits and consequences of its growing use?